Amendments to Specific Relief Act, 1963

The Central Government has, by way of a notification dated August 1, 2018, introduced the Specific Relief (Amendment) Act, 2018 (‘Amendment Act’), which amends the Specific Relief Act, 1963 (‘1963 Act’). However, the date on which the provisions of the Amendment Act will come into effect has not yet been notified.

The 1963 Act provides for, inter alia, parties to a contract to seek specific performance when aggrieved by the non-performance of such contract. Some of the key amendments introduced by the Amendment Act have been set out below:

i.  Specific performance: The 1963 Act provided that specific performance is a limited remedy, which may be granted by a Court, at its discretion, subject to certain conditions. The Amendment Act empowers the Court to grant specific performance as a general rule, subject to the certain exceptions. A brief comparison of the conditions, pre and post amendment of the 1963 Act, under which Courts would not grant specific performance are:

Pre-amendmentPost amendment
A contract for the non-performance of which compensation is an adequate reliefThis condition does not apply
A contract which runs into such minute or numerous details or which is so dependent on the volition of the parties or otherwise from its nature is such that the court cannot enforce specific performance of its material termsThese conditions do not apply
A contract which is so dependent on the personal qualification of the parties that the court cannot enforce specific performance of its material termsThis condition is still applicable
A contract which is in its nature determinableThis condition is still applicable
A contract, the performance of which involves the performance of a continuous duty which the court cannot superviseThis condition is still applicable


ii.  Substituted performance: The Amendment Act gives an affected party the option to arrange for performance of the contract by a third party or by his own agency (substituted performance), and costs for such substituted performance may be recovered from the defaulting party. After obtaining substituted performance, specific performance cannot be claimed. However, the affected party’s right to claim compensation will not get affected.

iii. Infrastructure projects: A schedule has been added pursuant to the Amendment Act which broadly describes the infrastructure projects which would be under the purview of the 1963 Act. These projects can be categorized as follows: (i) transport; (ii) energy; (iii) water and sanitation; (iv) communication (such as telecommunication); and (v) social and commercial infrastructure (such as affordable housing).

iii.  Injunctions: The Amendment Act prevents Courts from granting injunction in respect of contracts relating to infrastructure projects, if such an injunction would hinder or delay the progress or completion of the infrastructure project.

iv.  Special Courts: The Amendment Act requires that State Government will, in consultation with the Chief Justice of the relevant High Court, designate one or more Civil Courts as Special Courts to deal with cases under the 1963 Act, in relation to infrastructure projects. Such cases must be disposed off within 12 months, which period can be extended by six months, of the date of service of summons to the defendant.

v.  Experts: The Amendment Act inserts a new provision which empowers the Courts to engage experts in suits where expert opinion may be needed. Such expert may be examined in the Court in relation to the expert’s findings, opinions, etc.

Published In:Inter Alia - Quarterly Edition - September 2018 [ English Chinese japanese ]
Date: September 1, 2018